By Sarah Wolff
EU inner defense matters comparable to migration, police and judicial cooperation are this present day a part of ecu international coverage. This e-book indicates how these matters have taken over the european schedule in the direction of Mediterranean international locations. Adopting a rational-choice institutionalist method, it explores ecu coverage within the sector because the flip of this century. Findings offer clues on the best way to re-design ecu guidelines in the direction of the zone following the 2011 Arab revolts. Investigating the circumstances of border administration, counter-terrorism and rule of legislation advertising during the lens of a rational-choice-historical institutionalism, the ebook contends that the advance of a Justice and residential Affairs (JHA) Mediterranean size was once contingent upon self sustaining variables: states' personal tastes and old legacies. opposite to the anticipated consequence, which might be that a few of the decision-making ideas restricted the actors, the feel that emerges is that the improvement of a JHA exterior measurement is determined by the meant strategic motion of actors and is tormented by time.
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Extra resources for The Mediterranean Dimension of the European Union's Internal Security
It is here at the narrowing point, where possibilities close off, that we find ourselves, seeking a means of defining critical junctures’ (Hogan 2006: 664). In their historical comparative analysis of critical junctures in Latin America, Collier and Collier insist that the conditions preceding the critical juncture can be different and that the nature of the critical juncture can be different as well. Such critical junctures in European integration are intergovernmental conferences and summits, but also crises such as the 2003 Iraq crisis or the crisis prompted by the Dutch and French ‘no’ to the referendum in 2005.
Despite critical junctures, there is a higher likelihood that institutions will reproduce patterns of the past, through a process of ‘increasing returns’. Consequently the costs of change of orientation or of reorientation are higher than those of continuing along the previous path (Pierson 2000: 252). A critical juncture therefore does not always equate with change, since the choice of the actors might be constrained by external 32 The Mediterranean Dimension of the European Union’s Internal Security events (Capoccia and Kelemen 2006: 6).
There was no supremacy of European Community law in those pillars. Rather, in the third pillar, framework decisions that aimed at the approximation of law were adopted, as well as common positions and decisions. A common position nonetheless did not directly affect individuals, Member states being supposed to comply with it ‘in good faith’; those common positions do not imply any approximation of legislation (O’Neill 2008: 34). The pillar structure did therefore impact on the weak implementation of JHA policies, confirming that, despite the fact that actors could instrumentalize the existence of grey areas to pursue their own preferences at EU level, or mitigate the effects of EU integration, in practice the pillar structure led to a certain ‘implementation deficit’, with only 38 per cent of the Hague Programme having achieved its initial objectives (Monar 2009: 4).
The Mediterranean Dimension of the European Union's Internal Security by Sarah Wolff