By Norbert Untersteiner (auth.), Norbert Untersteiner (eds.)
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Additional info for The Geophysics of Sea Ice
The star-like crystals grow rapidly across the surface of calm seawater until they overlap and freeze together, forming a continuous thin ice skim. Because of the tabular nature of both THE GROWTH, STRUCTURE, AND PROPERTIES OF SEA ICE Fig. 10. Stellar ice crystals growing in seawater. Fig. 11. Stellar ice crystals grown from seawater. the initial ice discoids and stars, they float with their basal Ideally this planes (0001) in the plane of the water surface. would produce an ice skim with a completely c-axis-vertical oriHowever, since water conditions are rarely comple tely entation.
This orientation has been found repeatedly in studies of both sea and NaCl ice (Shumskii, 1955; Tabata and Ono, 1957; Perey and Pounder, 1958; Weeks and Lee, 1958; Weeks and Assur, 1963; Langhorne, 1980; Weeks and Gow, 1980). In sea ice, because the heat loss into the atmosphere is unidirectional there is no obvious reason why the (0001) planes should have any particular orientation in the horizontal plane of the ice sheet. Early field observations appeared to 42 Fig. 25. W. F. WEEKS AND S. F. ACKLEY Schematic diagram showing the process of geometric selection according to Perey and Pounder (1958).
0"' -.. Q. e ~ Fig. 7. Temperature of the density maximum t max and of the freezing point tg for seawater of different salinities. At the time of the water to the surface where it is dissipated. initial ice formation a several-meter-thick upper layer of the sea will have been lowered to or slightly below the freezing point. The amount of supercooling necessary to initiate ice formation in seawater has apparently not been investigated. Considering the large number of solid impurities in any small volume of natural seawater, it is almost certain that homogeneous nucleation never Also, in polar regions snow crystals are fairly continuoccurs.
The Geophysics of Sea Ice by Norbert Untersteiner (auth.), Norbert Untersteiner (eds.)