By J. F. Lemaire, K. I. Gringauz, D. L. Carpenter, V. Bassolo
The plasmasphere is the huge "doughnut-shaped" area of the magnetosphere that types a chilly thermal plasma cloud encircling the Earth, terminating unexpectedly at a radial distance of 30,000 km over a pointy discontinuity referred to as the plasmapause. this is often the 1st monograph to explain the old improvement of rules in regards to the plasmasphere through the pioneering researchers themselves. The monograph brings our photograph of the plasmasphere brand new by means of featuring experimental and observational result of the previous 3 many years, and mathematical and actual theories proposed to provide an explanation for its formation. the amount should be beneficial for researchers in area physics and also will entice these attracted to the background of technology.
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Extra resources for The Earth's Plasmasphere (Cambridge Atmospheric and Space Science Series)
D) Whistler spectra representing propagation on both sides of the plasmapause. The dashed curves represents propagation at intermediate density levels in the region of steep gradients, (e) The distribution in frequency-versus-time space of the nose frequencies and travel times associated with the spectra of (d). (f) The equatorial electron density profile inferred from the data of (e) (adapted from Carpenter, 1963b). 29 30 Discovery of the plasmasphere but Carpenter did not learn much about this at the time, having friendly but limited personal contacts with his Soviet colleague during the meeting.
On one occasion, whistlers recorded for several successive nighttime hours exhibited unusually long trains of multihop echoes. The path radius could not easily be estimated in this case, but there was a steady, 31 32 Discovery of the plasmasphere hour-by-hour decrease in the echo period. A density decrease did not appear to be the predominant effect involved, since magnetic activity was not changing sharply at the time. However, an inward displacement of the path would be consistent with the manner in which the plasmapause radius had been observed to change during such nights.
Instead, whistler components observed inside the afternoon plasmapause continued to exhibit the same nose frequencies, as if at unchanged radii. This is indicated by arrow 'c' in Fig. 14 Whistler measurements of diurnal variations in the plasmapause position during a four-day period of relatively steady, moderate geomagnetic agitation that followed a weak magnetic storm. The whistler data were recorded at Eights, Antarctica in July, 1963 (after Carpenter, 1966). 34 Discovery of the plasmasphere summary figure from the paper on the plasmapause published in 1966.
The Earth's Plasmasphere (Cambridge Atmospheric and Space Science Series) by J. F. Lemaire, K. I. Gringauz, D. L. Carpenter, V. Bassolo