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By F. G. Merrifield, J. H. Clough Smith and G. E. Earl (Auth.)

ISBN-10: 0080097693

ISBN-13: 9780080097695

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Example text

Relative values are based on the assumption that the horizontal force H at Greenwich has a value of unity. Hence to convert absolute values into relative values, they must be divided by 0-185 giving the values as noted in the margin. Abnormal Variation Disturbances in the distribution of the earth's magnetic field T E R R E S T R I A L MAGNETISM 33 may take place during so called Magnetic Storms. These disturb­ ances coincide with intense sunspot activity. Local magnetic attraction due to ferromagnetic substances in the sea bottom or in mountain formations near the coast, will affect the compass.

Apparent A Although such a real deviation rarely exists, there may be an apparent A which is rather a mechanical or personal error such as (i) Lubber line not on or parallel to fore and aft line. This affects compass courses and relative bearings. (ii) N - S axis of compass card not parallel to the needle sys­ tem. This affects compass courses and bearings. (iii) Error in the magnetic bearing. (iv) Swinging ship too rapidly in one direction. I, before or abaft the com­ pass. e. I, with its upper pole forward and in the horizontal plane of the compass gives the same result in N latitudes.

Iv) Swinging ship too rapidly in one direction. I, before or abaft the com­ pass. e. I, with its upper pole forward and in the horizontal plane of the compass gives the same result in N latitudes. ) T h e m a x i m u m deviation this type of iron causes is known as Induced B. Neither of these forces causes deviation when the ship is heading N or S by compass but they do affect the directive force of the compass on these courses. T h e y both cause m a x i m u m deviation when ship is heading E or W by compass.

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Ship Magnetism and the Magnetic Compass by F. G. Merrifield, J. H. Clough Smith and G. E. Earl (Auth.)


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