By F. G. Merrifield, J. H. Clough Smith and G. E. Earl (Auth.)
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Relative values are based on the assumption that the horizontal force H at Greenwich has a value of unity. Hence to convert absolute values into relative values, they must be divided by 0-185 giving the values as noted in the margin. Abnormal Variation Disturbances in the distribution of the earth's magnetic field T E R R E S T R I A L MAGNETISM 33 may take place during so called Magnetic Storms. These disturb ances coincide with intense sunspot activity. Local magnetic attraction due to ferromagnetic substances in the sea bottom or in mountain formations near the coast, will affect the compass.
Apparent A Although such a real deviation rarely exists, there may be an apparent A which is rather a mechanical or personal error such as (i) Lubber line not on or parallel to fore and aft line. This affects compass courses and relative bearings. (ii) N - S axis of compass card not parallel to the needle sys tem. This affects compass courses and bearings. (iii) Error in the magnetic bearing. (iv) Swinging ship too rapidly in one direction. I, before or abaft the com pass. e. I, with its upper pole forward and in the horizontal plane of the compass gives the same result in N latitudes.
Iv) Swinging ship too rapidly in one direction. I, before or abaft the com pass. e. I, with its upper pole forward and in the horizontal plane of the compass gives the same result in N latitudes. ) T h e m a x i m u m deviation this type of iron causes is known as Induced B. Neither of these forces causes deviation when the ship is heading N or S by compass but they do affect the directive force of the compass on these courses. T h e y both cause m a x i m u m deviation when ship is heading E or W by compass.
Ship Magnetism and the Magnetic Compass by F. G. Merrifield, J. H. Clough Smith and G. E. Earl (Auth.)