By Robert E. Olson
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Additional resources for Protein-calorie Malnutrition
J. Reeds (1972). Adaptation to Low-Protein Intakes 31 of valine by muscle but not by liver. Transaminase activity in muscle is increased, in agreement with the findings by Mimura et al (18). Leucine oxidation is also reduced in muscle, and to a less extent in liver. From these results it looks as if muscle is capable of some adaptive change, which operates at the first oxidation step. Up to the present, therefore, the results are rather contradictory, and more work is needed to determine the significance in vivo of any economy in the oxidation of branched-chain amino acids.
57 gm/kg/day). 0 ° Individual variability on the basis of protein requirement (8). b Theoretical adequate intake on the basis of t r y p t o p h a n (most limiting). c Actual amount fed to children in experiment (as described in text). to these children, in order to allow them to select a free-choice ratio of these foods ad libitum, they chose a caloric intake of not less than 90 cal/kg/day in five mealtimes a day, which was composed of a mixture higher in beans than the rural area population of Guatemala gets (about 50:50 of protein from each source) and which is higher in protein quality.
It seems possible that valine may be less efficiently economized, particularly as it is oxidized 30 J. C. Waterlow mainly by muscle. Neale (19) has investigated this problem with amino acids uniformly labeled with 14C. He has measured the output of 14C02 in vivo as an index of the extent of oxidation and has found that in rats on low-protein diets the apparent oxidation of mixed amino acids and of lysine but not that of valine, is reduced. Moreover, this reduction in oxidation of mixed amino acids only occurs if the tracer is given by stomach tube and not if it is administered intravenously.
Protein-calorie Malnutrition by Robert E. Olson