By Lack A.J., Evans D.E.
Quick Notes in Plant Biology covers all elements of recent plant biology. The scope and intensity of this article are appropriate for a primary and moment yr undergraduate pupil of plant biology, together with molecular biologists and biotechnologists.
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A distinct band of microtubules (Topic B1), the pre-prophase band, forms around the cytoplasm in a ring where the edge of the phragmosome lay, again predicting the plane of cell division. At the end of G2, the cell has to pass another checkpoint (G2/M) at which stage, if conditions are suitable, it enters M phase in which the cell divides. B6 – Cell division 19 M G2 checkpoint Division G2 G1 Interp a s e h S Fig. 1. G1 checkpoint Key phases of the cell cycle. Stages G1 to G 2 are known as interphase.
Closed roots have three layers of cells (initials) in the apical meristem which form all the tissues present. Open roots have three meristems close to the apical meristem: the procambium which forms the vascular cylinder, the ground meristem which forms the cortex and the protoderm which forms the epidermis. The root cap is a cone of cells which protects the meristem and secretes mucilage. Root cap cells are constantly sloughed off. The mucilage provides an environment for bacteria and fungi which live in the rhizosphere, the immediate environment of the root.
The epidermal cells frequently have small projections that absorb the incident light and scatter the light reﬂected from the mesophyll layer underneath. This layer has many air spaces between its cells and reﬂects all the light. The pigment is usually in the vacuoles of the D1 – The ﬂower 43 epidermal cells but sometimes there is some in the mesophyll too. There are three main types of pigment in petals. The most widespread are ﬂavonoids, which include at least three types of anthocyanins (Fig.
Plant biology: Instant notes by Lack A.J., Evans D.E.