By Richard A. White
This version contains adjustments in sections protecting naphthenic acid corrosion, overhead corrosion, alkylation crops, amine devices, sensitization of austenitic stainless steels, hydroprocessing unit air cooler corrosion, rainy hydrogen sulfide results, corrosion in fuel streams containing hydrogen sulfide/carbon dioxide combos, and pitting of stainless steels (including large and duplex). Sections contain flare assistance, bending, and deaerator cracking.
desk of Contents
1. Petroleum Refining approaches, Petroleum Corrosion, Crude Oil Fractionation devices, Utilities
2. Fluid Coking and Cracking, behind schedule Coking, Alkylation, Sulfur crops, and bitter Water Strippers
three. Hydroprocessing , Catalytic Reforming, and Flue gasoline
four. Hydrogen, Methanol, Ammonia, fuel Treating , Hydrodealkylation, Polymerization, Phenol, Solvent Treating
five. Underground Piping, creation collecting gear, and Tankage
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Additional resources for Materials Selection for Petroleum Refineries and Gathering Facilities
228. , “Choosing the Correct Cooling-Water Program,” Chemical Engineering 94, 1 (1987) p. 135. , “The Selection of Materials for Some Petroleum Refinery Applications,” Corrosion, 11,5 (May 1956). , “High Temperature Sulfide Corrosion in Hydrogen Free Environment,” API Division of Refinery, 43, I11 (May 1963 ): p. 78. , “Refinery Experiences with Cracking in Wet H,S Environments,” Materials Performance 27, 1 (1988 ): p. 30. , T. Auerback, “Crude Unit Overhead Corrosion Control,” Materials Performance 22, 9 (1983): p.
39. , and A. Lemieux, “Experiments with Corrosivity of Some North Alberta in situ Recovered Bituminous Crudes,” NACE-Canadian Region Western Conference (February 29 - March 3, 1988). , “Chloride and Caustic Stress Corrosion Cracking of Austenitic SS in Hot Water and Steam,” Corrosion 13, 8 (1957): p. 67. 2 Fluid Coking and Cracking, Delayed Coking, Alkylation, Sulfur Plants, and Sour Water Strippers 1. INTRODUCTION The equipment used in fluid coking and fluid catalytic cracking (FCC) is similar.
Since corrosion of carbon steel in concentrated sulfuric acid is accelerated over 50°C (120"F), electrical heat tracing, rather than steam tracing, is used to prevent freezing in cold climates. Most refiners specify that the acid piping be sloped so it is self-draining. 9 m/s (2-3 ft/s) for carbon steel, alloy 20 (UNS N08020) is used. 2 d s e c (4 ft/sec) without accelerated erosion-corrosion,the use of alloy 20 (UNS NO8020) is much more common. 8 Ni, 65 Co]) hard facing is used. ] in diameter) usually are made of alloy 20 (UNS N08020), and larger valves are made of steel with alloy 20 trim (stem and seats).
Materials Selection for Petroleum Refineries and Gathering Facilities by Richard A. White