By Sergio C Oehninger; T F Kruger
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Additional resources for Male infertility : diagnosis and treatment
She demonstrated that all chromosomes undergo nondisjunction during spermiogenesis, but that the G-group chromosomes (21 and 22) and the sex chromosomes have a significantly increased frequency of aneuploidy. 1% (1/1000); in contrast, the sex chromosomes and chromosomes 21 and 22 have a significantly increased frequency of aneuploidy. Thus, the sex chromosome bivalent and the G-group chromosomes are more susceptible to nondisjunction during spermatogenesis. 22 suggested a relationship between increased frequencies of aneuploidy and diploidy in semen samples containing spermatozoa with enlarged heads.
REFERENCES 1. Hafez ESE. Human Semen and Fertility Regulation in Men. St Louis: CV Mosby, 1976 2. Kruger TF, et al. Sperm morphological features as a prognostic factor in in vitro fertilization. Fertil Steril 1986; 46: 1118 3. Menkveld R, et al. The evaluation of morphological characteristics of human spermatozoa according to stricter criteria. Hum Reprod 1990; 4: 586 4. Katz DF, et al. Morphometric analysis of spermatozoa in the assessment of human male fertility. J Androl 1986; 7: 203 5. World Health Organization.
The increased level of HCO3– in seminal plasma compared with the epididymal fluid may allow motility to develop in the ejaculate. 39 showed a positive correlation between lower levels of HCO3- in the semen of infertile men with poor sperm motility. However, in male reproductive fluids, HCO3- levels must be kept low to prevent spermatozoa from undergoing premature activation and hyperactivated motility, processes that are stimulated by the 3–4-fold higher HCO3– concentrations present in the female reproductive tract40.
Male infertility : diagnosis and treatment by Sergio C Oehninger; T F Kruger