By I. Bernard Cohen
with the cooperation of Robert V. D. CampbellThis selection of technical essays and memories is a significant other quantity to I. Bernard Cohen's biography, Howard Aiken: Portrait of a working laptop or computer Pioneer. After an outline by way of Cohen, half I provides the 1st entire ebook of Aiken's 1937 inspiration for an automated calculating desktop, which was once later learned because the Mark I, in addition to reminiscences of Aiken's first machines by way of the executive engineer in control of development of Mark II, Robert Campbell, and the imperative programmer of Mark I, Richard Bloch. Henry Tropp describes Aiken's hostility to the particular use of binary numbers in computational structures and his replacement approach.Part II comprises essays on Aiken's administrative and instructing kinds through former scholars Frederick Brooks and Peter Calingaert and an essay through Gregory Welch at the problems Aiken confronted in developing a working laptop or computer technological know-how application at Harvard. half III includes memories through those that labored or studied with Aiken, together with Richard Bloch, Grace Hopper, Anthony Oettinger, and Maurice Wilkes. Henry Tropp offers excerpts from an interview carried out in advance of Aiken's loss of life. half IV gathers the main major of Aiken's personal writings. The appendixes provide the specifications of Aiken's machines and checklist his doctoral scholars and the subjects in their dissertations.
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Extra resources for Makin’ Numbers: Howard Aiken and the Computer
Addition b. subtraction c. multiplication d. division 2. Positive and negative numbers 3. Parentheses and brackets a. ( ) + ( ) b. [( ) + ( )] ⋅ [( ) + ( )] c. Etc. 4. Powers of numbers a. Integral b. Fractional 5. Logarithms a. Base 10 16 Aiken b. All other bases by multiplication 6. Antilogarithms or exponential functions a. Base 10 b. Other bases 7. Trigonometric functions 8. Anti-trigonometric functions 9. Hyperbolic functions 10. Anti-hyperbolic functions 11. Superior transcendentals a. Probability integral b.
If a formula is to be evaluated for a wide range of the independent variable, the process becomes repetitive. Means for accomplishing this will be discussed later. 13. The computation of closed series such as y = a0 + a1x + a2 x2 + a3 x3 (a) is most easily accomplished by the sequence: a3 a3 x a3x + a2 a3 x2 + a2 x (b) 22 Aiken a3 x2 + a2 x + a1 a3 x3 + a2 x2 + a1 x a3 x3 + a2 x2 + a1 x + a0 = y In the case of inªnite series the computation may be reduced to successive multiplications and additions.
I taught “quiz sections,” oversaw experiments in the laboratory, and lectured on electric ªlters and (once) detection. The Pre-Radar course was under the overall management of Professor Chaffee, although the detailed operating management was under Professor Russell Tatum. Luckily, I was able to adjust my teaching schedule to permit me to spend the necessary time at IBM. Aiken’s First Machine 35 I had only limited contact with Aiken during this period. He was completely involved in his teaching at the Naval Mine Warfare School, together with, I believe, other special Naval assignments.
Makin’ Numbers: Howard Aiken and the Computer by I. Bernard Cohen