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By Edmund C. Stoner

, 371 pages. With fifty six diagrams

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1 POLARIZATION AND DIELECTRIC CONSTANT Consider a vacuum capacitor consisting of a pair of parallel electrodes having an area of cross section A m2 and spaced d m apart. When a potential difference V is applied between the two electrodes, the electric field intensity at any point between the electrodes, perpendicular to the plates, neglecting the edge effects, is E=V/d. The 35 36 Chapter! 1) in which e0 is the permittivity of free space. 2) where s is the dielectric constant of the material. Since s is always greater than unity Qi > Q and there is an increase in the stored charge given by *-l) (2-3) This increase may be attributed to the appearance of charges on the dielectric surfaces.

1 Schematic representation of dielectric polarization [von Hippel, 1954]. (With permission of John Wiley & Sons, New York) Polarization of a dielectric may be classified according to 1. 2. 3. 4. Electronic or Optical Polarization Orientational Polarization Atomic or Ionic Polarization Interfacial Polarization. We shall consider the first three of these in turn and the last mechanism will be treated in chapter 4. 2 ELECTRONIC POLARIZATION The classical view of the structure of the atom is that the center of the atom consists of positively charged protons and electrically neutral neutrons.

Roy. , A 133 (1931) 458] (with permission of the Royal Society). Shallow traps and the ground states are separated by an energy level which corresponds to the Fermi level in the excited state. This level is the steady-state under excitation. To distinguish this level from the Fermi level corresponding to that in the metal the term 'dark Fermi level' has been used (Eckertova, 1990). Electrons in the Fermi level have the same probability of being excited to the conduction band or falling into the ground state.

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Magnetism and Atomic Structure with 56 diagrams by Edmund C. Stoner

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