Handbook of Geophysics and the Space Environment - download pdf or read online

By Adolph S. Jursa (Ed.)

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Surprisingly, many surges are not associated with flares, although conversely a large fraction of flares seem to generate surges. The material pushed upward in a surge usually descends along its original trajectory. The latter characteristic distinguishes surges from sprays (Figure 1-26) which are high velocity (exceeding the solar escape velocity, 670 km/s) explosive ejections associated with certain flares. The intense heating in flares usually “evaporates” the chromosphere near the bases of magnetic loops.

Major variations in coronal structure take place during the solar cycle. Several decades of observations have confirmed that green-line intensities, and to some extent the red-line intensities, follow the sunspot number quite well. In particular, averages of the green-line intensities show large maxima at midlatitudes in both hemispheres that appear near or coincident with sunspot latitudes. These belts move towards the equator with the progression of the solar cycle and finally merge. The total variation of the green-line intensity during a solar cycle is significant.

1-12 Figure 1-16, Two filtergrams of the solar limb as seen in the coronal lines Fe X, 6374 ~ (above) and Fe XIV, 5303 ~ (below) obtained with the new “one-shot” coronagraph at the National Solar Observatory at Sacramento Peak. s0s snc. E6) 1>18 8<1<16 1<1 Figure 1-17. A “picture” of the ~en-line corona on 7 Feb 1984 obtained by allowing successive east-limb scans to rotate across the disk. Note the (black) pob coronal holes from which high speed solar wind streams flow. (National Solar Observatory at Sacramento Peak).

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Handbook of Geophysics and the Space Environment by Adolph S. Jursa (Ed.)

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