By Reinhard Kirsch
Geophysical innovations can map the underground stipulations except boreholes. using those tools for hydrogeological functions is validated for mapping of porous and structural aquifers, selection of groundwater caliber (mineralization), evaluation of hydraulic houses, decision of aquifer vulnerability and mapping of infected websites. also, an outline of geophysical innovations used for groundwater stories is given together with seismics, resistivity equipment, magnetics, flooring penetrating radar and NMR (nuclear magnetic resonance).
In this moment version new chapters on RMT (radio magnetotelluric) and at the decision of groundwater circulation in tracking wells are integrated.
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Extra resources for Groundwater Geophysics
Ground Water 27:525-530 Graeves RJ, Lesmes DP, Lee JM, Toksöz MN (1996) Velocity variations and water content estimated from multi-offset ground penetrating radar. Geophysics 61:683-695 Günzel F (1994) Geoelektrische Untersuchung von Grundwasserkontaminationen unter Berücksichtigung von Ton- und Wassergehalt auf die elektrische Leitfähigkeit des Untergrundes. PhD thesis Ludwig-Maximilians-Universität München Han DH, Nur A, Morgan D (1986) Effects of porosity and clay content on wave velocities in sandstones.
Groundwater Survey TNO, The Netherlands Organisation for Applied Scientific Research, Delft Watkins, JS, Walters LA, Godson RH (1972) Dependence of in-situ compressional-wave velocity on porosity in unsaturated rocks. Geophysics 37:29-35 Wharton, RP, Hazen GA, Rau RN, Best DL (1980) Electromagnetic propagation logging: advances in technique and interpretation. Soc of Petr Eng, Paper 9267 Worthington PF(1993) The uses and abuses of the Archie equation, 1: The formation factor-porosity relationship.
Their propagation velocities vP and vS are related with the compressional modulus k, the shear modulus P and the density U of the subsoil following Eq. 1) 24 Wolfgang Rabbel Fig. 1. (a) Particle movement of compressional waves (P-waves), (b) particle movement of shear waves (S-waves), (c) definition of compressional modulus k with respect the change ǻV of a volume V caused by a pressure increment ǻP (d) definition of shear modulus µ with respect to the shear displacement ǻȟ of a sample of width ȗ caused by a shear stress ǻı The compressional modulus k is defined as the ratio between pressure and volume deformation connected with the passage of a P-wave (Fig.
Groundwater Geophysics by Reinhard Kirsch