By Alexander Y. Grosberg, Alexei R. Khokhlov
This booklet describes the fundamental evidence, suggestions and concepts of polymer physics in basic, but scientifically exact, phrases. In either medical and ancient contexts, the publication exhibits how the topic of polymers is interesting, because it is in the back of many of the wonders of residing mobilephone equipment in addition to many of the newly built fabrics. No arithmetic is utilized in the e-book past modest highschool algebra and a little freshman calculus, but very subtle suggestions are brought and defined, starting from scaling and reptations to protein folding and evolution. the recent variation contains a longer part on polymer guidance equipment, discusses knots shaped by means of molecular filaments, and provides new and up to date fabrics on such modern subject matters as unmarried molecule experiments with DNA or polymer houses of proteins and their roles in organic evolution.
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Additional info for Giant Molecules: Here, There, and Everywhere
Some heteropolymers are not biological, but are artificially synthesized. Their primary structures, in the spirit of our previous comparison, resemble a book that a monkey would have created if it were allowed to use a typewriter. , a block-copolymer) or maybe a simple periodic sequence, such as “ABABABABABABABAB” (the latter can be also treated as a homopolymer whose repeating units, or monomers, are AB each). Lack of “sense” in their primary structures, by the way, does not prevent random and block-copolymers from having some very interesting physical properties, or from being widely used in applications.
Living cells have “provided” themselves with special topological enzymes which can do rather intricate jobs. They can, for instance, break one of the strands of a ring-shaped DNA molecule, then use some energy to “rearrange” the double helix by twisting it a particular extra number of times, and finally “heal” the break. Obviously, this is not just accidental, but is done for some good reason. August 19, 2010 18 10:54 World Scientific Book - 9in x 6in Giant Molecules: Here, There, and Everywhere We should also mention in passing that some organisms, called kinetoplasts, have their genomes in the form of Olympic gel type construct of many DNA rings.
A b c d giant August 19, 2010 10:54 World Scientific Book - 9in x 6in What Does a Polymer Molecule Look Like? 5). It can be many centimeters across. Scientists have a special word for it: a gel. Meanwhile, chefs, who may not even suspect that they are talking about polymer networks, use the same word in a slightly different form: jelly! So, when you are eating your favorite jell-o, you hold in your hands a single molecule: isn’t it a giant molecule?! (Well, a rigorist would say that jell-o is not really a single molecule, for there are many small molecules of water and others inside.
Giant Molecules: Here, There, and Everywhere by Alexander Y. Grosberg, Alexei R. Khokhlov