By Will Fowler
Frequently translated as “revolt,” a pronunciamiento used to be a proper, written protest, in general drafted as an inventory of grievances or calls for, that may bring about an armed uprising. This universal nineteenth-century Hispano-Mexican extraconstitutional perform was once utilized by squaddies and civilians to forcefully foyer, negotiate, or petition for political swap. even if nearly all of those petitions did not in achieving their goals, many best political alterations in nineteenth-century Mexico have been brought on or provoked by means of one of many greater than fifteen hundred pronunciamientos filed among 1821 and 1876. The first of 3 volumes at the phenomenon of the pronunciamiento, this assortment brings jointly major students to enquire the origins of those forceful petitions. From either a neighborhood and a countrywide point of view, the essays study particular pronunciamientos, akin to the Plan of Iguala, and discover the contexts that gave upward thrust to using the pronunciamiento as a catalyst for swap. Forceful Negotiations offers a greater realizing of the civil conflicts that erupted with notable and tragic consistency following the fulfillment of independence, in addition to of the ways that Mexican political tradition legitimized the specter of armed uprising as a way of effecting political swap in this turbulent interval.
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Additional info for Forceful Negotiations: The Origins of the Pronunciamiento in Nineteenth-Century Mexico
Only two years later Ferdinand himself invited a French army into Spain to liberate him from the constitutional government, which he believed had his destruction as its object. At any rate, even if one of the Spanish royals had assumed the Mexican monarchy, there had been no discussion of the nature of his powers. And this, of course, became a major issue when Iturbide became the emperor in 1822. The Plan of Iguala also failed to define the territorial extent of the Mexican Empire. In 1821 Mexico was more a concept than an actual territory.
The balance the Plan of Iguala achieved among competing class, regional, and political forces was its cutting edge, but it was a balance that could have lasted only with the most skilled political leadership, something Iturbide himself would not provide. Among Mexican conservatives, at any rate, the feeling would linger that Iguala and Iturbide had achieved the only moment of genuine national unity for generations to come. One important Iguala 9 effect of the Plan of Iguala was the feeling of Mexican exceptionalism.
For an early appraisal of the nature of civil conflict in Mexico (1821–57), see Fowler, “Civil Conflict in Independent Mexico,” 49–86. 25. Vázquez, “El modelo de pronunciamiento mexicano,” 49. Introduction xxxix Chronology of Main Events and Pronunciamientos, 1821–1853 1810–1821 war of independenc e 1821 24 February 24 August 27 September 1822–1823 Agustín de Iturbide launches the Plan of Iguala (see introduction and chapters 1 and 2) Iturbide and Viceroy O’Donojú sign the Treaty of Córdoba War ends with the Army of the Three Guarantees’ capture of Mexico City first empire 1822 19 May 26 August 31 October 2 December Iturbide becomes Emperor Agustín I following pronunciamiento of 19 May (see chapter 2) Iturbide imprisons nineteen members of Congress Iturbide closes down Congress Santa Anna launches Pronunciamiento of Veracruz (see introduction) 1823 1 February 2 February 19 March 1823–1824 Plan of Casa Mata (see introduction) Santa Anna joins the Plan of Casa Mata Iturbide abdicates the triumvirate The Federal Constitution is drafted; triumvirate is made up of generals Guadalupe Victoria, Nicolás Bravo, and Pedro Celestino Negrete 1823 5 June 1824–1835 1824–1829 Santa Anna revolts launching the Plan of San Luis Potosí (see chapter 5) first federal rep u b l i c Guadalupe Victoria, president 1827 19 January 10 May 20 December 23 December Arenas pro-Spanish conspiracy dismantled First anti-Spanish Expulsion Laws Second Expulsion Laws Plan of Montaño, General Nicolás Bravo joins Montaño’s revolt (see chapter 3) 1828 7 January September 14 September 30 November 4 December Battle of Tulancingo; escoceses are defeated The moderate General Manuel Gómez Pedraza wins presidential elections Santa Anna “pronounces” in Jalapa, proclaiming Vicente Guerrero president Revolt of La Acordada (see chapter 3) Raid of the Parián Market xlii Chronology 27 December Manuel Gómez Pedraza escapes and goes into exile 1829 26 July 11 September 6 November 4 December 31 December 1830–32 Vicente Guerrero, president Isidro Barradas’s expedition lands in Tampico to reconquer Mexico for Spain Santa Anna defeats Barradas’s expedition Centralist pronunciamiento in Campeche (see chapter 3) General Anastasio Bustamante leads the Revolt of Jalapa (see chapters 3, 4, and 5) Bustamante takes Mexico City Anastasio Bustamante, president (Also known as the Alamán Administration) 1831 14 February Vicente Guerrero is executed 1832 2 January March–December December Santa Anna launches Plan of Veracruz (see chapters 4 and 5) Civil war spreads across central Mexico Convenios of Zavaleta bring an end to Bustamante’s regime 1833 January Manuel Gómez Pedraza, president (as agreed in Zavaleta, Gómez Pedraza returns to complete his interrupted term in office while elections are held) Chronology xliii 1 April 1833–34 26 May 1 June 8 June Santa Anna, president; however, does not take up post, leaving Vice President Valentín Gómez Farías in charge Gómez Farías “Radical” Administration Pronunciamiento de Escalada Plan of Durán Plan of Huejotzingo calling for an end to Congress’s radical reforms and for Santa Anna to become dictator (see chapter 6) 1834 25 May Plan of Cuernavaca starts a series of pronunciamientos against the reforms of the Gómez Farías Administration.
Forceful Negotiations: The Origins of the Pronunciamiento in Nineteenth-Century Mexico by Will Fowler