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Catalyst construction for the transformation of crudes into gas and different gasoline items is one thousand million dollar/year enterprise and fluid cracking catalysts (FCCs) characterize virtually 1/2 the refinery catalyst marketplace. throughout the cracking reactions, the FCC floor is infected via metals (Ni, V, Fe, Cu, Na) and through coke deposition.
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Extra info for Fluid Catalytic Cracking Handbook
Extraction is used for light products (up to light naphtha) and sweetening for heavy products (gasoline through diesel). Sweetening of the FCC gasoline is usually sufficient to meet its sulfur specifications. However, in areas where "reformulated" gasoline is marketed, sulfur specifications in the gasoline may require more treatment. The mercaptans in the LPG need to be extracted to protect the downstream processes, such as alkylation. Sulfur increases acid consumption and produces undesirable by-products.
The lean gas leaves the top of the absorber to an amine unit for H2S removal prior to entering the refinery fuel gas system. Stripper or De-ethanizer The HPS liquid consists mostly of C3's and heavier hydrocarbons; however, it also contains small fractions of C2's, H2S, and entrained water. The stripper removes these light ends. The liquid enters the stripper on the top tray. The heat for stripping is provided by an external reboiler, using steam or debutanizer bottoms as the heat medium. The vapor from the reboiler rises through the tower and strips the lighter fractions from the descending liquid.
D-2887 is a low-temperature simulated distillation (SIMDIS) method that measures the vol% of true boiling point (TBP) cuts using gas chromatography (GC). Like D-1160, its use is limited to a maximum end point of about 1,000~ (538~ However, new GC-based systems on the market can measure boiling point temperatures as high as 1,350~ (750~ This development will be useful in determining boiling points of feedstocks that contain residue and in the characterizing of raw crudes. Compared with D-1160, SIMDIS is less labor intensive, more reproducible, and generally more accurate at the IBP and at the 5% and 10% points.
Fluid Catalytic Cracking Handbook