By Klaus KnÃ¶del, Gerhard Lange, Hans-JÃ¼rgen Voigt, Bundesanstalt fÃ¼r Geowissenschaften und
This guide describes a wide spectrum of tools within the fields of distant sensing, geophysics, geology, hydrogeology, geochemistry, and microbiology designed to enquire landfill, mining and commercial websites. The descriptions supply information regarding the primary of the equipment, functions, basics, tools, survey perform, processing and interpretation of the information, caliber coverage, group of workers, apparatus, time wanted, examples, in addition to references and resources for additional analyzing. moreover, this guide offers with the stepwise approach for investigating websites and customary difficulties confronted in effective implementation of box operations. it may be used as a realistic advisor for education scholars, in addition to to demonstrate the benefits of interdisciplinary website investigations to decision-makers confronted with their very own environmental investigations.
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This instruction manual describes a large spectrum of equipment within the fields of distant sensing, geophysics, geology, hydrogeology, geochemistry, and microbiology designed to enquire landfill, mining and commercial websites. The descriptions supply information regarding the main of the equipment, functions, basics, tools, survey perform, processing and interpretation of the information, caliber coverage, team of workers, gear, time wanted, examples, in addition to references and assets for additional interpreting.
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Extra resources for Environmental Geology: Handbook of Field Methods and Case Studies
1-1). Environmental Geology, 3 Remote Sensing 29 Fig. 1-1: Black-and-white aerial photograph taken by the Royal Thai Survey Department on November 11, 1995, showing the more than 35 m deep Nong Harn borrow pit near Chiang Mai in northern Thailand. The pit is being filled with waste from the west along a road to the bottom of the pit. The pit has steep slopes and was previously about 45 - 50 m deep. The western part of the pit floor is covered by more than 10 m of waste. The southern, western, and eastern slopes are covered by a plastic liner.
For the specific aspects of quality assurance of methods, see the “Quality Assurance” sections in Parts 3 to 5. 1 Principle of the Methods Despite all technical progress in digital imaging, interpretations of standard aerial photographic images remain an important remote-sensing tool. Aerial photography can address a multitude of geoscientific questions and can be highly effective when used for logistics and planning (BÖKER & KÜHN, 1992). The cost of aerial photography is rather low. The data are informative, easy to manage, and the film does not require special image processing resources for analysis.
4. Aerial photography surveys, which now are semi-automated with modern navigation and camera systems, require extensive sophisticated equipment and techniques. 1, aerial photographs should be taken with 60 - 90 % overlap in the direction of flight for stereoscopic restitution to be carried out. An overlap of approximately 35 % is needed between adjacent flight lines to allow for flight irregularities (Fig. 1-5). 4). The film must be transported from the flight area to the photo lab and developed strictly following manufacturer’s instructions.
Environmental Geology: Handbook of Field Methods and Case Studies by Klaus KnÃ¶del, Gerhard Lange, Hans-JÃ¼rgen Voigt, Bundesanstalt fÃ¼r Geowissenschaften und