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Extra info for Environment and Energy. Environmental Aspects of Energy Production and Use with Particular Reference to New Technologies a Report of the United Nations Economic Commission for Europe
14-31 and solar steam power plants: pp. 82-83 utilization of ocean temperature gradients: pp. 98-99 58-59 Techniques under development 51 NEW HEAT TRANSFER MEDIA Environmental aspect 1. Air pollution None to very limited during normal operations. 2. Water pollution None to very limited during normal operations. 3. Land use 4. Solid waste Irrelevant. Irrelevant. 5. Noise No particular problem. 6. Aesthetic aspect Irrelevant. 7. Others Hazards in case of accidental releases: sodium explodes when it comes into contact with water and ignites with air; ammonia is toxic and chloro£luoromethanes are believed to endanger the ozone shield.
2 Future technology Mainly refinements of present technology. Possible use of solvents. 2. Methods for reducing environmental impact Utilization of gas refinery systems. Refining and recycling of water used for processing. 3. General assessment Of great importance in the near future due to the large existing oil shale and tar sand reserves (33 per cent of world total fuel recoverable reserves compared to 12 per cent of crude oil reserves). RELATED TOPICS - open-cast mining of solid fuels: pp. 8-9 methods of increasing gas and oil extraction efficiency: pp.
The same methods are used to increase gas and gas condensate outputs. Economic efficiency: Most of the methods listed above (except shaft method) have a high economic efficiency: they increase the productivity of wells and the total oil output. The shaft method is less efficient. Importance in ECE region: These methods appear to be widely used in ECE oil-producing countries. 2 Future technology Underground nuclear explosions (see pp. 40-41). 2. Methods for reducing environmental impact Depending on the technology used to enhance extraction, a great number of protection measures can be taken to eliminate air and water pollution.
Environment and Energy. Environmental Aspects of Energy Production and Use with Particular Reference to New Technologies a Report of the United Nations Economic Commission for Europe by Unknown Author Unknown Author