By A. Abdelkarim
Strategies of switch, stagnation and improvement within the international locations of the Gulf Co-operation Council are analyzed during this e-book. The participants convey influence of oil sales on inhabitants switch and social improvement and on redefining the socio-economic function of the kingdom. Oil may well open venues for industrialization and improvement. besides the fact that, loss of inhabitants rules, difficulties of human assets improvement, the fairly gradual swap in gender kin and in political platforms and heavy spending on militarization, it really is argued, may possibly abate improvement endeavour.
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Extra resources for Change and Development in the Gulf
25 million in 1970. The second phase started in the early 1970s with the large increase in oil price and revenues, and ended in the early 1980s. In this phase, the rate of inflow of migrants was very high. 5 million persons. 7). The second phase also witnessed a change in the rate of inflow of economically active migrants from the two major ethnic groups: Arabs and Asians. In some Gulf countries more Asians were employed than Arabs, even before the start of this phase. However, in all of them, the rate of increase of Asians was higher than that of Arabs during this period, and hence, the ethnic composition of the migrant labour force was increasingly changing to the advantage of the Asians (see below).
However, one simple indicator could point to whether social (human resource) investment could have been expanded (and hence development accelerated). This indicator is 46 Change and Development in the Gulf military e x p e n d i t u r e as a p e r c e n t a g e of combined education a n d health e x p e n d i t u r e . This in the years 1988-90 was as follows: Bahrain (134), Kuwait (83), O m a n (268), Saudi Arabia (177), the UAE (174), a n d for Qatar n o data was available (UNDP, 1992). It a p p e a r s from this that four out of five Gulf countries s p e n d (much) m o r e on defence t h a n on the educational a n d health sectors combined.
Looking at oil revenues from a different perspective, Abdel-Fadil argues that the external nature of such rent stems from the fact that the size of rent received by producing countries is determined by a number of interrelated external economic factors - including the world demand for oil and the bargaining position of the oil producers as a group rather than those of individual countries. Because it is mainly the external factors rather than the domestic cost factors that determine the size of the rent, such rent is described as external.
Change and Development in the Gulf by A. Abdelkarim