By S. Maatsch
In 2001 Germany and Austria turned the final european states to boost transnational controls limiting entry to their labour markets for electorate of ex-communist nations. This publication demanding situations anti-immigration discourses to teach that given the excessive percent of expert immigrants, it's the sending instead of the receiving international locations who lose out.
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Extra resources for Central and East European Migrants’ Contributions to Social Protection
4) There are two types of costs associated with migration: foregone earnings ch and cl for the period of migration and adaptation (as in the Borjas model outlined above), and direct costs cd which are the same in absolute terms for all workers. 5) c ch + cd k · cl + cd cl + d k It is easy to see that the returns from migration are the same for highskilled and low-skilled workers only if the direct costs of migration are zero and/or if the high-skilled and the low-skilled earn the same in both countries (k = 1).
After the forceful intervention of the Soviet Army in 1968 which ended the Prague Spring, the number of legal emigrants declined again to around 5,000 per year in the 1970s and further down to around 2,000–3,000 per year in the 1980s (Janiss, 1992, p. 11). , p. 20). The major country of destination was West Germany. Contrary to other Central and Eastern European countries, Romania did not expel ethnic Germans after World War II. Accordingly, a sizeable number of ethnic Germans remained in the territory of the country.
This does not only concern the sheer size of migration ﬂows, but sometimes also directly or indirectly the migrants’ socio-economic proﬁle. Many of the mass migration ﬂows like the migration movements associated with shifting borders after World War II cannot be explained adequately by economic theory. 8% Poland Cz. Rep. 0% EU-15 country Baltic States Source: Own compilation, based on national statistical ofﬁces and Eurostat (see Appendix 1). Notes: a Citizenship. b Estimated based on 2006 Census and CSO (2010).
Central and East European Migrants’ Contributions to Social Protection by S. Maatsch