By Stuart Turner

ISBN-10: 0387182195

ISBN-13: 9780387182193

1987 Springer. Lecture Notes in Earth Sciences 12. Lg.8vo., 393pp., wraps. the rest curb on decrease fore-edge, VG. moderate conceal put on; no proprietor marks.

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**Sample text**

5 cm). Particularly interesti ing are the results of the combination with the internal GPS covariance matrix sCx (Eq. 0 cm . . 5 cm (mean ± 0 cm). 51/ Considering the essential results of the combination of t e r r e s t r i a l with GPS heights, the d i s t i n c t influence of the GPS heights to the height determination of the network points becomes clear. 5 cm are highly sig- n i f i c a n t improvements of two, t e r r e s t r i a l l y only weakly determined heights. 9. CONCLUSIONS An appropriate combination of the stochastic information obtained from t e r r e s t r i a l and s a t e l l i t e aided network observation requires - a hybrid functional and stochastic model of adjustment - variance component estimation techniques - S-transformation of covariance matrices.

1, row 7) being the same as the t e r r e s t r i a l ones. An exception is the standard deviation sb de- monstrating the good influence of GPS measurements to an increased (external) accuracy of heights in this combined network. 2 Accuracy of adjusted coordinates The results of the combined t e r r e s t r i a l and GPS-network are: sCx (Eq. 1) and TCx (Eq. 7 cm, (Eq. 5 cm, O± (Eq. 4) lead to Tx S x = + 0 . 4 cm, - s+TCx after VCE (Tab. 4 cm . ± after VCE: S+TOx = ± 0 . 6 c m (23) t S-transformation of Eq.

5 cm are highly sig- n i f i c a n t improvements of two, t e r r e s t r i a l l y only weakly determined heights. 9. CONCLUSIONS An appropriate combination of the stochastic information obtained from t e r r e s t r i a l and s a t e l l i t e aided network observation requires - a hybrid functional and stochastic model of adjustment - variance component estimation techniques - S-transformation of covariance matrices. Some results are - various combinations of external and internal covariance matrices can be applied; - a f t e r variance component estimation an identical internal covariance mat r i x of the adjusted coordinates of the hybrid network can be obtained from d i f f e r e n t combinations by S-transformations; - the covariance matrices of s a t e l l i t e aided coordinate observations as obtained from various standard software packages are strongly affected by external influences; - f o r comparison of accuracies only internal covariance matrices (or invariant functions) are suitable; - GPS observations can contribute to an improvement of the internal accuracy of even very precise local t e r r e s t r i a l networks.

### Applied geodesy: global positioning system : networks, particle accelerators, mathematical geodesy by Stuart Turner

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