By R. W. Fairbrother and Geoffrey A. Taylor (Auth.)
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Additional info for A Text-Book of Bacteriology
With distilled water) are added to the culture. A red colour indicates a positive test (pH 4·5 or less) and a yellow colour is negative. Urease. The presence of an enzynle which can split urea to form ammonia-s-a urease, may be detected by gro\ving the organism on Christensen's medium. This consists of a simple medium with the addition of urea and an indicator. The production of ammonia raises the pH and results in the phenol-red indicator changing from yellow to red. Citrate Utilization. The ability of organisms to utilize citrate as a sole source of carbon may be tested by attempting to grow them in a simple medium consisting of salts and sodium citrate.
This has been noted to occur not infrequently with the spores of Ol. botulinum, which under favourable conditions may not germinate for many days. This fact has been held responsible for the difficulty sometimes encountered in sterilizing by the intermittent method material contaminated with this organism. Symbiosis and Antagonism. In nature organisms are seldom found alone, many varied species usually multiply side by side. Substances such as acids and antibiotics which are injurious for certain species may be produced and so, in certain cases, a preponderance of special types may occur.
It is now recognized that a bacterium may possess many enzymic activities; different sugars are fermented and various proteins and fats are broken down. In a number of cases these actions are reasonably constant under normal conditions and consequently biochemical tests rnay be of great value in establishing the identity of an organism. The possibility of modifying the enzymic activity of an organism by the process of adaptation has already been noted; this, however, does not detract from the value of the tests in diagnosis.
A Text-Book of Bacteriology by R. W. Fairbrother and Geoffrey A. Taylor (Auth.)